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In 2013 sales of calcium supplements were $6 billion. In 2012, vitamin D supplement sales in the United States reached $748 million. For over a decade, these supplements have been proscribed to treat osteoporosis in older individuals. More recently however, studies have appeared that dispute the assumption that calcium and vitamin D supplements reduce the risk of osteoporosis after age 30. Further, some studies indicate that calcium and vitamin D supplements are associated with higher risk of complications.1
Axial spondyloarthritis, also known as AxSpa, is a chronic inflammatory disease of axial or central skeleton. It mainly affects the spine and sacroiliac joint in pelvis. The most common symptom of axial spondyloarthritis is lower back ache and in severe cases, it can cause complete fusion and rigidity of the spine. Axial spondyloarthritis commonly occurs more often in males and in second or third decades of life.
Various studies have shown that smokers with early axial spondyloarthritis have earlier disease onset and more disease activity, poor functions and health related quality of life, damage and inflammatory changes. It was observed in different studies that cigarette smoking was independently associated with earlier onset of axial spondyloarthritis, increased axial structural damage on Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph.